Outreach Project on
Estimation of Methane Emission under Different Feeding Systems and Development of Mitigation Strategies
Date/Year of Start: 2008-2012 (XI plan); 2012-2017 (XII plan) & 2017-2020
Project Coordinator: Dr. Raghavendra Bhatta, Director
Principal Investigator: Dr P. K. Malik
Co-Investigator: Dr. A. P. Kolte
Participating Centres: XII Plan
Enteric Methane Emission Database
An inventory on state wise enteric methane emission from Indian livestock was developed under outreach project. ICAR-NIANP estimate revealed that Indian livestock annually emits about 9.25 Tg enteric methane.
The hotspots for enteric methane emission were also identified which needs urgent attention for the amelioration
In vitro screening of phyto-sources for methane production
Methane production potential of more than 1000 feedstuffs including straws, tree leaves, shrubs, pasture grass, grain, oil cakes, agro-industrial by-products and compounded feeds from different agro-eco zones were determined in vitro and based on the methane production, the promising sources were selected and studied with graded level of supplementation for optimizing the level of inclusion in animal diet to curtail methane emission
Equation for predicting methane production
Based on methane production potential and chemical composition of feedstuffs, an equation was developed to predict methane production from the given feed resources/feeding regimes
Methane (ml/100 mg digested substrate) = 14.346+0.010*CP*NDF-0.069*ADF-0.001*ADL-0.136*IVDMD
Development of methane ameliorative measures
Based on the in vitro and subsequent in vivo studies in large and small ruminants, various methane ameliorative measures were developed
Tropical tree leaves reduce enteric methane emission
Selected tropical tree leaves from Azadirachta indica, Ficus religiosa and Artocarpus integrifolia were evaluated for their methane suppressing effect. Enteric methane was quantified using SF6 technique. Results from the in vivo study in sheep showed a reduction (p<0.05) of 20.5, 20.7 and 26.2% with the inclusion of Jack, Neem and Banyan tree leaves, respectively.
Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed husk as methane suppressant
Based on the in vitro results, tamarind seed husk at two graded levels of 2.5 and 5.0% of straw based diet was evaluated for methane reduction in crossbred cattle. Enteric methane emission was measured by sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique. The supplementation of tamarind seed husk at 5% level decreased methane emission by 17% in cattle; however, supplementation at 2.5% did not show any significant reduction in methane emission.
Individual Vs Combo supplementation of tannins and saponins phyto-sources
The studies carried out using tannins or saponins as methane suppressants are confined to in vitro conditions only and there is limited information available on the in vivo methane amelioration. In vivo study was conducted in adult crossbred cattle to test whether combined supplementation of tamarind seed husk (CT source) and soapnut (saponin source) induce additional enteric methane reduction over and above the individual supplementation of selected sources. Results from the study revealed a significant (p<0.05) reduction (19.2%) in enteric methane emission (g d-1) on tamarind seed husk supplementation. However, the enteric methane emission (g/d) in soapnut (T2) and combo supplementation (T3) groups did not differ (p>0.05) from the control.
Silkworm pupae oil: a potent inhibitor of rumen methanogenesis
The research work has been initiated at the institute to explore the properties of silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupae oil as methane mitigating agent and optimize the level of the inclusion in animal feed in order to achieve significant methane reduction without compromising the feed fermentation. Silkworm pupae oil was supplemented with graded levels of 2 to 20% in finger millet and concentrate based diet. Our results indicated 15-50% reduction in methane production in vitro; while there was a concurrent substantial reduction in feed fermentation characteristics beyond the 4% level of silkworm pupae oil. The reduction in methane production at 2 and 4% level as compared to control basal diet was 16 and 30%, respectively.
An anti-methanogenic feed supplement “Harit Dhara” was developed after rigorous in vitro and in vivo studies in different ruminant species. The supplementation of Harit Dhara at prescribed level in cattle, buffalo and sheep helps in reducing enteric methane emission in the tune of 18-20% and also helpful in improving productive performance of livestock. The use of Harit Dhara in large animals may also cut down the emission that would be equivalent to 700 litres CO2 in a day.
AICRP on Nutrional and Physiological Interventions
for Enhancing Reprocitive Performance in Animals
Documentation of current status/extent of infertility and various causes of reproductive failures in animals
A survey was carried out in nine different states (Assam, Odessa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh) representing various agro-eco zones of the country to assess the infertility status of animals. About 65000 animals’ data had been collected to find out the extent of reproductive problems throughout the country.
Synchronization for estrus induction
ü The reproductive efficiency of cattle and buffaloes having reproductive problems was improved through estrus induction and timed AI using the different synchronization protocols. The average conception rate was increased up to 68% (ranging from 39 to 75%) by treating almost 1700 cows and buffaloes. In case of cows, the ovsynch and estradoublesynch and in case of buffalo estradoublesynch were found better than other protocols. Considering both the species, estradoublesynch could be used for improving the conception rate and thus enhanced the reproductive efficiency in cattle and buffaloes.
v Nutritional interventions to ameliorate infertility and improve reproductive efficiency
ü It was evident that most of the animals with reproductive problems had low energy and protein intake in diet with inadequate mineral supply. Accordingly, asupplement was formulated comprising of source of easily available energy, rumen degradable and non-degradable source of protein, most critical minerals etc. The milk fat increased to 3.85 % (range 3.5 to 4.2%) from 2.58% (range 2.5 - 3.0%) after 20 days of feeding the supplement. All the reproductive disordered animals supplemented with this specific feed formulation came to estrus (100%) and 76% of animals become pregnant.
v Developed Markers for predicting fertility status
ü Quantitative proteomics revealed differences in number and types of proteins upregulated in good and poor quality semen samples
ü Higher proportion of immune regulatory protein in low fertile bulls could determine the fertility status of a male.
v Developed an extender for semen cryopreservation
ü Some biomolecules have been identified as suitable semen extenders to improve post-thaw semen quality and that had cryoprotective effect on buffalo spermatozoa and improved field fertility.
v Developed mineral mixture for breeding bull
ü Bull mineral mixtures developed by ICAR-NIANP improved semen production and post thaw semen quality in breeding bulls.
ü The developed mineral mixture for breeding bulls was validated in bulls of BAIF, Pune and ICAR-CIRB, Hisar cattle and buffalo farms, respectively. The spermatozoa count was observed higher in bulls supplemented with this specific mineral mixture which resulted in more number of frozen semen straws per bull. The average sperm concentration was 1.32 x 109 /ml of semen. The average number of straws per ejaculate was 400 and average number of straws per bull was 47520. The conception rate using the straws made of this semen was 55%. The technology is cost-effective in terms of low cost of mineral mixture and more numbers of semen straws per bull.
Synchronization treatment of reproductive disordered cows; subsequently the cow conceived and given birth of calf
Feed supplement distributed to farmers Animal is examined for estrus symptom
‘NIANP-BULLMIN’-Mineral Mixture for Breeding Bull
1. Title: Farmer FIRST project on improving livelihood security of farmers through technological interventions for sustainable livestock farming
2. Date of start: 6th Nov 2016
3. Budget: Rs. 91.56 lakh
4. Name of the Team Leader : Dr Raghavendra Bhatta
PI : Dr Swaraj Senani
And Co PI’s : Dr D T Pal, Dr K Giridhar, Dr Letha Devi G,
Dr A Arangaswamy, Dr Anjumoni Mech ,
Dr Mukund Kataktalware, Dr B Narayanaswamy,
Dr Manjunath Reddy
5. Centre details : Lead Centre ICAR- NIANP, Bengaluru
6. Salient Achievements:
The project is in operation in 12 villages spread across Doddabalapur Taluk and Anekal Taluk, covering 1000 households. Nine technological interventions are taken up to improve income and livelihood security of the farmers. Out of the total 9 modules, 5 modules are livestock based, one each on fodder and horticulture aspects, and two enterprise based modules for goat farming and mushroom cultivation. Several awareness meetings, demonstration and scientist farmer interfaces were organized and high yielding fodder trees/grasses, vegetable and fruit seeds and seedlings were introduced in the villages. Through the livestock based interventions mastitis, lameness as well as reproductive problems were treated in the villages.
7. Glimpses of activities under FFP
Clean milk production demo and distribution of kits Visit of QRT members to the fodder plots in
Introduction of micronutrients for vegetable crops
Pregnancy diagnosis during Animal health camp Scientist- farmer interface during Farmers' Conclave at ICAR-NIANP,
Bengaluru on 17 Feb 2018